# The Life and Times of Stephen Wolfram: Timeline

1950s and 1960s | |
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1959: | Born August 29 in London, England |

1967–1972: | Dragon School, Oxford |

1968–1976: | Won various prizes for English, science, math, etc. |

1970s | |
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1972: | Won scholarship to Eton College |

1972–1976: | King's Scholar, Eton College |

1972–1973: | Wrote unpublished book on particle physics |

1973: | Started programming Elliott 903C computer |

1973: | Did first scientific computer experiments |

1974: | Wrote first scientific paper |

1975: | Published first scientific paper |

1975: | Won scholarship to Oxford University |

1976: | Worked in Theory Division, Rutherford Laboratory |

1976: | Published second scientific paper |

1976: | Started using ARPANET and algebraic computation systems |

1976–1978: | Attended Oxford University St. John's College |

1977: | Placed top in university examinations |

1977: | Worked in Theoretical High-Energy Physics Group, Argonne National Laboratory |

1977: | Wrote classic paper on heavy quark production in QCD |

1978: | Discovered early connections between cosmology and particle physics |

1978: | Moved to Caltech |

1978: | Invented Fox–Wolfram variables for analysis of event shapes in particle physics |

1979: | Discovered Politzer–Wolfram upper bound on masses of quarks in the Standard Model |

1979: | Published tenth scientific paper |

1979: | PhD in theoretical physics from Caltech |

1979: | Began development of SMP |

1980s | |
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1979–1982: | Developed standard QCD approach to simulation of particle events |

1980: | Described basic phenomenon of inflationary cosmology |

1980–1981: | Carried out first complete calculation of matter-antimatter asymmetry generation |

1981: | Began work on cellular automata |

1980–1982: | Faculty member at Caltech |

1981: | First version of SMP released |

1981: | Won MacArthur Prize Fellowship |

1981: | Founded Computer Mathematics Corporation (later merged into Inference Corporation) |

1981: | Published twenty-fifth scientific paper |

1982: | Wrote landmark paper "Statistical Mechanics of Cellular Automata" |

1982: | Discovered fractal structure of binomial coefficients mod a prime |

1981–1986: | Consultant on science and technology to many organizations |

1982: | Coined the term "complex systems research" |

1983–1986: | Long-term member of Institute for Advanced Study, Princeton |

1983: | Discovered Wolfram classification of cellular automata |

1983: | Developed algebraic formalism for additive cellular automata |

1984: | Invented regular language complexity |

1984: | Discovered computational irreducibility |

1985: | Published fiftieth scientific paper |

1985: | Published "Undecidability and Intractability in Theoretical Physics" |

1985: | Published "Origins of Randomness in Physical Systems" |

1985: | Invented a cellular automaton-based system for cryptography |

1985: | Invented a cellular automaton approach to fluid dynamics |

1986: | Worked on the development of languages for massively parallel computers |

1986: | Founded the Center for Complex Systems Research |

1986: | Joined the University of Illinois as Professor of Physics, Mathematics and Computer Science |

1986: | Began development of Mathematica |

1987: | Founded the journal Complex Systems |

1987: | Founded Wolfram Research, Inc. |

1988: | Ended active position at University of Illinois |

1988: | First edition of The Mathematica Book published |

1988: | Mathematica Version 1.0 released (June 23) |

1989: | Mathematica available on more than 10 computer platforms |

1989: | 1000 technical papers cite Wolfram's 1983 cellular automaton paper |

1990s | |
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1990: | 100,000 users of Mathematica |

1990: | Wolfram Research reached $10M in annual revenue |

1990: | Completed second edition of The Mathematica Book |

1990: | Wolfram Research Europe founded |

1990: | Wolfram Research reached 100 employees |

1991: | Second edition of The Mathematica Book published |

1991: | Mathematica Version 2.0 released |

1991: | 38-city international lecture tour |

1991: | Began work on A New Kind of Science (NKS) |

1991–1992: | Wrote NKS Chapter 2: "The Crucial Experiment" |

1992: | Wrote NKS Chapter 3: "The World of Simple Programs" |

1992–1993: | Wrote NKS Chapter 4: "Systems Based on Numbers" |

1992–1993: | Wrote NKS Chapter 6: "Starting from Randomness" |

1993: | Wrote NKS Chapter 5: "Two Dimensions and Beyond" |

1993: | Wolfram Research reached 200 employees |

1994: | Wolfram Research Asia founded |

1994: | The Mathematica Book published in Japanese and German |

1994: | 10,000 technical papers cite Wolfram's work |

1994: | Cellular Automata and Complexity: Collected Papers published |

1994–1995: | Wrote early sections of NKS Chapter 8: "Implications for Everyday Systems" |

1994–1995: | Wrote NKS Chapter 7: "Mechanisms in Programs and Nature" |

1995: | Wolfram Media, Inc. founded |

1995: | The Mathematica Book published in French |

1995: | Over a million users of Mathematica |

1995: | Wrote NKS Chapter 11: "The Notion of Computation" |

1995–1998, 2001: | Wrote NKS Chapter 9: "Fundamental Physics" |

1996: | Complex Systems began tenth year of publication |

1996: | Third edition of The Mathematica Book published |

1996: | Mathematica Version 3.0 released |

1997: | Wrote later sections of NKS Chapter 8: "Implications for Everyday Systems" |

1998: | Ten years of Mathematica celebrated |

1998–1999: | Wrote NKS Chapter 10: "Processes of Perception and Analysis" |

1999: | Fourth edition of The Mathematica Book published |

1999: | Mathematica Version 4.0 released |

1999–2001: | Wrote NKS Chapter 12: "The Principle of Computational Equivalence" |

2001–2009 | |
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2001: | webMathematica released |

2001: | Finished NKS Chapter 1: "The Foundations for a New Kind of Science" |

2002: | A New Kind of Science released (May 14) |

2002: | A New Kind of Science becomes a bestseller |

2002: | Over 200 major news articles about A New Kind of Science |

2002: | wolframscience.com website launched |

2002–2003: | 50-city lecture tour |

2003: | Fifth edition of The Mathematica Book |

2003: | Mathematica Version 5.0 released |

2003: | First NKS Conference |

2003: | First NKS Summer School |

2004: | A New Kind of Science available online |

2005: | 500 technical papers cite A New Kind of Science |

2005: | WolframTones website launched |

2006: | Wolfram Computable Data Initiative launched |

2007: | Wolfram Demonstrations Project launched |

2007: | Mathematica reaches 2500 built-in functions and objects |

2007: | "Mathematica Reinvented": Mathematica 6 released |

2007: | Wolfram 2, 3 Turing Machine Prize announced and won |

2007: | Wolfram Research celebrates 20 years |

2008: | 20 years of Mathematica celebrated |

2008: | Mathematica 7 released |

2009: | Wolfram|Alpha Blog launched |

2009: | Wolfram|Alpha launched |

2009: | Wolfram|Alpha mobile app released |

2010–Present | |
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2010: | Mathematica 8 released |

2010: | Stephen Wolfram Blog launched |

2010: | Touch Press founded |

2011: | Computable Document Format (CDF) released |

2011: | First 30 Wolfram apps produced |

2012: | Wolfram|Alpha Pro launched |

2012: | NKS 10th Anniversary |

2012: | Mathematica 9 released |

2013: | 25 years of Mathematica celebrated |

2014: | Wolfram Connected Devices Project launched |

2014: | Wolfram Language introduced |

2014: | Wolfram Cloud launched |

2014: | Mathematica 10 released |

2014: | Mathematica Online released |

2015: | Wolfram Data Drop released |

2015: | Image Identification Project launched |

2016: | Wrote An Elementary Introduction to the Wolfram Language |

2016: | Wolfram Programming Lab released |

2016: | Launched the Wolfram Open Cloud |

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